Online Custom «Bounded Awareness and the Decision-Making Process» Essay Sample
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The Space Shuttle Challenger disasters of 1986 occurred after the spacecraft faced technical issues 73 seconds into flight. The professional team overlooked safety measures resulting to the disaster. The measures included preparation and execution plans for accident avoidance, industrial safety, and flight system protection. During the teleconference, none of the decision-making members considered advice from quality assurance. Additionally, there were no representatives in the Mission Management Team. Many challenges were present, such as the procedure for reporting. As a result, there was no trend analysis on the O-ring. For example, before launching, the group did not consider operational requirements and specifications of the documental waiver or acceptance (Mahler, 2009).
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The chain of command was a barrier to the communication to technical issues. As a result, it suppressed expert’s opinion, and the information did not reach the control. For example, NASA faced various risks, such as strategies, operational, financial, and environmental risks (Mahler, 2009). However, they overlooked management risk due to the urgency of the problem. Therefore, in the communication among the members was mentioned that the O-ring problem was not significant. The decision to launch resulted from groupthink. The decision was not as a result of an individual decision-making but the members’ in groupthink caused by lack of direction from leaders (Bazerman & Moore, 2013; Stern, 2006).
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Bounded awareness is a response model explaining the limitation of human rationality. The reason includes rational limitation by a situation, or human error. The model establishes both descriptive and normative theories on human behavior. The normative theory suggests that the human mind has no constraints. The second view suggests that the mental process faces various constrains. One cause is the tendency of focusing much attention on the event, hence ignoring others. As a result, focus limits knowledge and relevant information beyond the range. Concurrently, the decision-maker may be informed but may not act to the case. As a result, during the decision-making process, managers should acknowledge that group dynamic hinders information sharing. For example, a team may discuss material known to all and avoid critical information known only by a member (Bazerman & Moore, 2013).
Organizational decision-making structure can foster bounded awareness. For example, multiple layers of management hinder information sharing. For example, various factors may cause miscommunication or loss of information through the decision-making structure. A sender may lack clarity if the message is for more than one person. Industrial jargons may overwhelm the sender hence he will not get the essential information. Additionally, since organizations are diverse, different approaches in the decision-making process may lack meaning to people from a given background. Thirdly, the decisions-making process can be stressful. When deadlines are tight, staff may focus on the task and no other information. As a result, managers should acknowledge the above dynamics in decision-making and bound knowledge (Stern, 2006).
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Foreign policy reflects rational behavior of leaders. Decision-makers react to international threats and opportunities by developing cost-benefit analysis. The government then selects the system with maximum payoffs depending on the objectives. To establish an action by the government, an analyst must evaluate available choices to the decision-makers. First, taking no action would not solve the Cuban threat, and, secondly, the US was reluctant to diplomacy. It preferred direct intervention. Other measures, such trade sanctions, were not effective. The Cuban president avoided the sanction by partnering with the east. Additionally, American intelligence suggests that the local militia could not overthrow the government. Similarly, there lacked evidence of disenchantment in Cuba. As a result, the US policy-makers developed various strategies to overthrow the government. For example, they trained the opposition and facilitated logistical support, while the CIA would orchestrate propaganda against the government (Stern, 2006).
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The US president was new and faced contradictory information his administration inherited. The first omission was lack of direction to advisors. He has never clarified whether the objectives were to eliminate the regime or accomplish other foreign policies. As a result, the decision to invade reached in stages. First, the CIA developed a plan as an outcome of its goal. Secondly, it used the monopoly of information to get the president’s approval. Therefore, the decision was the result of focusing on the illusion, where the CIA placed significance on the gain, without mentioning the consequences (Bazerman & Moore, 2013).
Various groups make important decisions in society. Such groups include juries, committees, work teams, and family. Various researches show systematic differences between choices made by groups and individuals. Decision-making without a group’s input is a traditional approach, which is effective when subordinates are significant or lack expertise. The quality is low for such a decision since it lacks diversity. Additionally, the decisions require acceptability, and, therefore, may not function. For example, when subordinates feel that leaders do not value their involvement, they rebel. However, the decision is efficient in an urgent situation. Assembling a committee and brainstorming takes time. As a result, a leader may use experience when making a decision (Stern, 2006).
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Group decision-making fosters synergy and sharing of information. Synergy provides that particular outcomes are possible when groups brainstorm. Additionally, it is socially economical since it improves the quality of decision. Secondly, it facilitates an exchange of information and leads to informed decisions. For example, group members possess different knowledge and share it through brainstorming. However, groupthink can degrade a decision. For example, when members lack adequate information, they developed poor decisions (Bazerman & Moore, 2013). As a result, group members should be diverse and seek the expertise advice during the decision-making process (Stern, 2006).